Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph
   socialist, anarchist
   Born in Besançon to a working-class family, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who is often considered the father of modern anarchism (and to whom Mikail Bakunin, a Russian anarchist, owed much), was successively a typographer, small printer, and journalist. His forceful, audacious, and eloquent attack on the propertied classes in Qu'est-ce que c'est la propriété? (1840) aroused strong reactions and alarm among the bourgeoisie. Proudhon continued his criticisms in De la création de l'ordre dans l'humanité (1843), in which he defined work as the only true capital. But soon he would nuance his attacks, seeking less to eliminate private property than to attenuate its abuses, and less to eliminate the capitalist system than to reform it and to reconcile the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. In La Philosophie de la misère, or Système des contradictions économiques (1846), he discussed the basic concepts of communism. This brought a strong reaction from Karl Marx, who wrote Misère de la philosophie (1847) in response. A representative for the people in the National Assembly (1848) and the editor of several journals and newspapers, Proudhon was sentenced to prison (1849-50) for his opposition to Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. But in L'Idée de la révolution au XIXe siècle (1851), in which he put forth the principle of anarchism, he seemed to believe in the possibility of a rapproachment between napoléon III and the cause of social reform (Révolution sociale démontrée par le coup d'État du 2 décembre 1852). The publication of De la justice dans la Révolution et dans l'Église (1858) forced Proudhon to go into exile to Brussels, Belgium. on his return to France, his work Du principe fédératif et de la nécessité de reconstituer le parti de la révolution (1863) appeared and, after his death, De la capacité politique de la classe ouvrière was published. The founder of the mutual-ist system, worker syndicalism, and federalism, Proudhon seems to be at once a revolutionary and, according to Marx, a conservative. He envisioned a society in which ethical human nature and a sense of moral responsibility would make government unnecessary, and he rejected the use of force to impose any system. His followers opposed Marxist socialism as represented at the First International.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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  • PROUDHON, PIERRE JOSEPH° — (1809–1865), French Socialist and anti Jewish theorist. For Proudhon, the Jew was the source of evil, as incarnated in the race of Shem (Césarisme et christianisme, 1 (18832), 139). He accused the Jews of having rendered the bourgeoisie, high or… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph — born Jan. 15, 1809, Besançon, France died Jan. 19, 1865, Paris French journalist and socialist. After working as a printer, he moved to Paris in 1838 and joined the socialist movement. His What Is Property? (1840) created a sensation with such… …   Universalium

  • Proudhon,Pierre Joseph — Prou·dhon (pro͞o dōɴʹ), Pierre Joseph. 1809 1865. French anarchist who believed that human moral development would ultimately eliminate the need for laws and government. * * * …   Universalium

  • Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph — (1809–1865) French founding figure of anarchism . Proudhon came to fame with Qu’est ce que la propriété? (1840, trs. as What is Property?, 1876). The celebrated definition of property as theft in fact misrepresents the central concern of the work …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph — (1809 65) An autodidactic French brewer, early socialist thinker, and militant, who popularized the sayings ‘God is evil’ and ‘property is theft’. He is widely regarded as the founder of political anarchism , although his own followers applied… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Proudhon, Pierre Joseph — ► (1809 65) Escritor y sociólogo francés. Condenó la propiedad, por antisocial y contraria al derecho natural, y propuso la reorganización de la sociedad sobre bases mutualistas y federativas suprimiendo el Estado y todo órgano coercitivo. Autor… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph — (15 ene. 1809, Besançon, Francia–19 ene. 1865, París). Periodista y socialista francés. Después de trabajar como tipógrafo se trasladó a París en 1838 y se integró al movimiento socialista. Su obra ¿Qué es la propiedad? (1840) creó conmoción con… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • PROUDHON, PIERRE JOSEPH —    French Socialist, born at Besançon, the son of a cooper; worked in a printing establishment, spent his spare hours in study, specially of the social problem, and in 1840 published a work entitled What is Property? and in which he boldly… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Pierre-Joseph Proudhon — Portrait by Gustave Courbet, 1865 Full name Pierre Joseph Proudhon Born 15 January 1809(1809 01 15) …   Wikipedia

  • Pierre Joseph Proudhon — [ˈpjɛʀ ʒoˈzɛf pʀuˈdɔ̃] (* 15. Januar 1809 in Besançon; † 19. Januar 1865 in Passy bei Paris) war ein französischer Ökon …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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